A list of useful commands and basic information on navigating SHELL in Serv00.com.
The prompt on Serv00.com servers is in the format:
LOGIN- This is the user name in the system.
SERVER- This is the server you are logged in to.
PATH- This is the current directory we are in.
$- A prompt that informs you about the possibility of entering a command.
adam logged in to server
s3.serv00.com located in the
~/domains/adam.serv00.net directory. What is
~ is the information below.
Navigating the system
/usr/home/USER- Directory of the user with login
~- Your user directory.
.- The directory you are in.
..- The directory that contains the subdirectory you are in.
~/domains- Directory with created web pages.
~/backups- Directory with backups.
~/repositories- Directory with repositories.
/tmp- Temporary directory, periodically cleared of contents.
cd- Go to your home directory.
cd path_to_directory- Goes to the given directory.
ls- Displays a list of files and directories in the current directory.
ls directory_path- Displays a list of files and directories in the given directory.
mkdir directory_name- Create directory.
cp path_to_file path_to_file- Copying a file.
mv path_to_file_or_directory path_to_file_or_directory- Move file or directory.
rm path_to_files- Delete multiple files.
rm -rf path_to_file_or_directory- Delete multiple files or directories together with subdirectories.
rmdir directory- Delete an empty directory.
- Extracting tar files:
tar -xvf archive.tar tar -xvzf archive.tar.gz tar -xvzf archive.tgz tar -xvjf archive.tar.bz2 tar -xvjf archive.tbz2
- Extracting other popular archives:
unzip archive.zip gunzip archive.gz unrar x archive.rar bunzip2 archive.bz2 uncompress z-archive 7z x archive.7z brotli -d archive.br
- Packing into a
zip -r archive.zip directory_path
- Packing to
tar -zcvf archive.tar.gz directory_path
Each process has its own unique
PID number (
$ ps aux USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TT STAT STARTED TIME COMMAND root 22998 0.0 0.0 33964 11792 - INs 25May15 0:05.96 screen adam 85919 0.0 0.0 86476 6664 - SN 13:56 0:00.14 sshd: adam@pts/38 (sshd) adam 82119 0.0 0.0 17688 5428 17 INs+ 3Jun15 0:00.09 -/usr/local/bin/bash adam 18327 0.0 0.0 18740 2124 38 RN+ 15:18 0:00.00 ps aux adam 85921 0.0 0.0 17688 5724 38 SNs 13:56 0:00.06 -bash (bash) adam 86079 0.0 0.0 25772 2884 39 SN+ 13:56 0:00.01 screen -r adam 36518 0.0 0.0 24088 3404 42 INDs+ 3Jun15 4:33.59 redis-server: redis-server *:0 (redis-server)
There are 4 common signals that can be sent to any process:
SIGTERM– correct closing of the process
SIGKILL– annihilation of the process, which may result in the loss of all data contained in it (there is no way to intercept this signal by the process)
SIGSTOP– stop the process without data loss
SIGCONT– restarting a stopped process
By default, the
SIGTERM signal is sent, which causes the process to safely shut down. A properly written program can intercept such a signal and handle it appropriately. The signals
SIGCONT are information for the system kernel, which must take appropriate steps (the program is unable to handle these signals).
SIGKILL allows you to remove a process from your system that has crashed and stopped responding, but it means you will lose all information contained in it. The process is killed by the system kernel, which releases all resources used by the program. The signals are sent using the program
kill -SIGNAL PID
Termination of process 86079 - successful termination of the process:
kill -TERM 86079
Killing the process 86099 - killing the process, which may result in the loss of all data contained in it:
kill -KILL 86099
kill -9 86099